Wednesday, January 11, 2012


The recommended dosage by FAD/WHO

The recommended dosage by FAD/WHO


A fumiscope gives you these facts. It's an instrument, which accurately measures the concentration of fumigant gas in a space under fumigation. This space may be under a tarpaulin within a structure, ship or railroad car, or in a vault. With a fumiscope, you know the exposure in ounces per 1000 cubic feet/GM3 that exists inside the space under fumigation. This information is supplied and corrections can be made while fumigation is in progress. Over-exposure is avoided, and fumigation is done effectively throughout every part of a job area.

Simple to operate.
The fumiscope version 5.1 is designed exclusively for fumigation work. In operation, it electrically pumps samples of air from the space being fumigated, into a sensing element. The concentration of fumigant gas in the air is shown on the digital display in ounces per 1000 cubic feet/GM3. Anyone who can read a digital watch can quickly make measurements with the fumiscope. Two controls do all the adjusting. Air samples are collected through small tubes placed at critical spots prior to introducing the gas. You can place the tubes on one or more floors of a multistory structure over piles of grain on the inside of packages, etc. Tubes are extended to a convenient spot outside the fumigated area, gas is introduced, and readings taken periodically with the fumiscope. You get continuous records of gas concentration at each tube inlet.

Most insects are destroyed at the concentrations and duration's of methyl bromide shown above. For example, 2 pounds per 1000 cubic feet/GM3 require a duration of 2 hours 5 ounces per 1000 cubic feet/GM3 require a duration of 20 hours, etc. With a fumiscope, your knowledge of gas concentration is exact. You can tell when and where a complete kill is achieved.

The fumiscope is designed for plant and field use. Concentrations of several common fumigating gases may be easily measured over a wide range. The lighted digital display shows the concentration in ounces per 1000 cu. ft. directly. Many readings may be taken in rapid succession or the instrument may be used for continuous monitoring. Units are complete with electric pump, flow meter, flow adjustment, sensitive measuring elements, lighted digital display and power supply operating on 115 or 220 volt user selectable - all contained in a rugged Pelican case with a protective cover.

Structural And Commodity Fumigation
The digital display on the version 5.1 fumiscope makes reading gas concentrations, directly in ounces per 1000 cu. ft./GM3, much easier than trying to count and interpolate the lines on a conventional meter scale. The three digit lighted display indicates from 0 to 999 ounces per 1000 cu. ft./GM3 so that all useful concentrations of the fumigating gas may be read to the same accuracy, without switching scale ranges. The large digits may be easily read at any light level. The version 5.1 fumiscope will, with the flip of one switch, measure either methyl bromide or VIKANE from very low to very high concentrations. The fumiscope may be calibrated to read other gases as well. The fumiscope is normally powered from the 115 volt or 220 volt AC line.


Fumiscope memberikan anda fakta-fakta ini. Ia adalah instrumen yang tepat mengukur kepekatan gas fumigant dalam ruang di bawah pengasapan. Ruang ini bolehlah di bawah kain terpal dalam struktur kapal, atau kereta kereta api, atau dalam peti besi. Dengan fumiscope, anda tahu pendedahan dalam auns per 1000 feet/GM3 padu yang wujud di dalam ruang di bawah pengasapan. Maklumat ini dibekalkan dan pembetulan dapat dibuat semasa pengasapan sedang dijalankan. Lebih pendedahan dielakkan, dan pengasapan dilakukan secara berkesan sepanjang bahagian tiap-tiap kawasan kerja.

Mudah untuk beroperasi.
Versi fumiscope 5,1 direka secara eksklusif untuk kerja-kerja pengasapan. Dalam operasi, ia elektrik pam sampel udara dari ruang fumigated, ke dalam unsur penderiaan. Kepekatan gas fumigant dalam udara yang ditunjukkan pada paparan digital dalam auns per 1000 feet/GM3 padu. Sesiapa yang dapat membaca jam tangan digital dengan cepat boleh membuat pengiraan dengan fumiscope. Dua kawalan melakukan semua menyesuaikan. Sampel udara yang dikumpul melalui tiub kecil yang diletakkan di tempat-tempat yang kritikal sebelum memperkenalkan gas. Anda boleh meletakkan tiub pada satu atau lebih tingkat struktur berbilang tingkat atas timbunan bijian di dalam pakej, dan lain-lain Tiub diperluaskan ke tempat yang mudah di luar kawasan fumigated, gas diperkenalkan, dan bacaan yang diambil secara berkala dengan fumiscope. Anda akan mendapat rekod berterusan kepekatan gas pada kemasukan tiub setiap.
Kebanyakan serangga dimusnahkan pada kepekatan dan tempoh metil bromida yang ditunjukkan di atas. Sebagai contoh, £ 2 per 1000 feet/GM3 padu memerlukan tempoh 2 jam 5 auns per 1000 feet/GM3 padu memerlukan tempoh 20 jam, dll. Dengan fumiscope, pengetahuan anda kepekatan gas adalah tepat. Anda boleh memberitahu bila dan di mana membunuh lengkap dicapai.

Serba lengkap
Fumiscope direka untuk kegunaan loji dan padang. Kepekatan gas fumigating bersama beberapa mungkin mudah diukur lebih pelbagai. Paparan digital yang menyala menunjukkan kepekatan dalam auns per 1000 cu. kaki terus. Bacaan Ramai yang boleh diambil dalam berturut-turut pesat atau surat cara itu boleh digunakan untuk pemantauan berterusan. Unit yang lengkap dengan pam elektrik, meter aliran, pelarasan aliran, mengukur unsur-unsur sensitif, paparan digital yang menyala dan operasi bekalan kuasa pada 115 atau 220 pilih oleh pengguna volt - semua yang terkandung dalam hal berceranggah Pelican dengan penutup pelindung.

Pengasapan Struktur Dan komoditi
Paparan digital pada fumiscope versi 5.1 membuat kepekatan gas membaca, secara langsung dalam auns setiap 1000 cu. ft./GM3, lebih mudah daripada cuba untuk mengira dan menyisipkan baris pada skala meter konvensional. Paparan tiga berlampu angka menunjukkan dari 0 hingga 999 auns per 1000 cu. ft./GM3 sedemikian bahawa semua kepekatan berguna gas fumigating boleh dibaca ketepatan yang sama, tanpa penukaran julat skala. Angka yang besar boleh dibaca dengan mudah mana-mana di peringkat ringan. Versi 5,1 fumiscope akan, dengan flip satu suis langkah, sama ada metil bromida atau VIKANE dari sangat rendah untuk kepekatan yang sangat tinggi. Fumiscope boleh ditentu ukur ke dalam membaca gas lain juga. Fumiscope biasanya kuasa dari volt 115 atau 220 volt AC talian. 

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Chemicals Fumigation in Malaysia

Chemicals Fumigation in Malaysia
Many different gases and gas compounds are used for fumigation. The most widely used chemicals include Chloropicrin, Methyl Bromide and Phospine (PH3). Some gases, such as the sulphuryl fluoride used for termite fumigation, are odorless. For safety reasons, tear gas, which has a strong odor and causes irritation, may be added to these chemicals to alert people to their presence. Certain chemicals, including acrylonitrile and carbon tetrachloride, used to be common fumigants but are no longer used as pesticides. The use of methyl bromide is being limited because of concerns about damage to the ozone layer.

Hydrogen cyanide ( HCN )

Hydrogen cyanide (with the historical common name of Prussic acid) is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous liquid that boils slightly above room temperature at 26 °C (79 °F). Hydrogen cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. A minor tautomer of HCN is HNC, hydrogen isocyanide.
Hydrogen cyanide is weakly acidic with a pKa of 9.2. It partly ionizes in water solution to give the cyanide anion, CN–. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. The salts of hydrogen cyanide are known as cyanides.
HCN has a faint, bitter, burnt almond-like odor that only some people are able to detect owing to a genetic trait.[4] The volatile compound has been used as inhalation rodenticide and human poison. Cyanide ions interfere with iron-containing respiratory enzymes.
HCN is produced on an industrial scale and is a highly valuable precursor to many chemical compounds ranging from polymers to pharmaceuticals.

Methyl Bromide ( Metil Bromida )

Gas cylinder

Gas cylinder

Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br. This colorless, odorless, nonflammable gas is produced both industrially and particularly biologically. It has a tetrahedral shape and it is a recognized ozone-depleting chemical. It was used extensively as a pesticide until being phased out by most countries in the early 2000s.

Phosphine / Phospine ( PH3 )




Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a colorless, flammable, toxic gas. Pure phosphine is odourless, but technical grade samples have a highly unpleasant odor like garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and diphosphine (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously flammable in air, burning with a luminous flame. Phosphines are also a group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P (R = organic derivative). Organophosphines are important in catalysts where they complex to various metal ions; complexes derived from a chiral phosphine can catalyze reactions to give chiral products.


Fumigation is the process of removing unwanted pests from the environment. Fumigationcan be used to eliminate insects, including termites, ants, mice, worms and their eggsfrom the environment of land, buildings, feed and grain orientation materials and in awood-based products. Generally, the fogging which involves the use of deadly gas methylbromide, Phospine and Hydro cyanide to suffocate or kill unwanted pests.